Tuesday, January 12, 2021

Marxism and the One Ring of Power

J. R. R. Tolkien hated allegories, so I freely admit that what I'm about to do violates one of those sacred trusts: respecting the authorial intent. But the parallel I'm seeing here is just too good to pass up: Marxism is like the One Ring. Why do I say that? 

Well, here are the characteristics of the One Ring: very powerful, seductive, and evil. But the most interesting characteristic I'd like to point out is the reason why neither Elrond, Gandalf, nor Galadriel would take the ring: they knew that they could overthrow Sauron with his own ring, but then they would themselves become evil and tyrannical. To use rather leading language: the One Ring had the ability to replace one kind of oppression with another. 

And that's just what Marxism does. Marxism starts with the incredibly naive (i.e., flat-out wrong!) assumption that all history is based on class oppression, and then procedes blithely to replace one oppression with another. Marxism, of course, insulates itself against all truth or logic, so that the glaring inconsistencies, including the one I've just mentioned, don't bother any poor brainwashed soul inside the system. Indeed, truth, logic, and even language itself are conveniently labeled as weapons of oppression, despite being quite the opposite! Marxism has an inveterate hatred of Christianity so that Christians are 100% certain to be oppressed by Marxists. One is highly tempted to wonder at what point in that oppression (such as happened in the USSR and is happening right now in China) the Christians could claim to be in the oppressed group, but I digress.

I was wondering if we might take another page from Tolkien's book, again greatly against his wishes, and ask the question: is there a Frodo who can take this One Ring to Mount Doom? Here's a wonderfully appropriate Gandalf quote during the Council of Elrond, concerning the idea of casting the Ring into the fires of Mount Doom, from The Fellowship of the Ring: 

'Despair, or folly?' said Gandalf. 'It is not despair, for despair is only for those who see the end beyond all doubt. We do not. It is wisdom to recognize necessity, when all other courses have been weighed, though as folly it may appear to those who cling to false hope. Well, let folly be our cloak, a veil before the eyes of the Enemy! For he is very wise, and weighs all things to a nicety in the scales of his malice. But the only measure that he knows is desire, desire for power; and so he judges all hearts. Into his heart the thought will not enter that any will refuse it, that having the Ring we may seek to destroy it. If we seek this, we shall put him out of reckoning.'

So it is with Christianity, except that we DO know the end beyond all doubt: we look at the repulsive Marxist ideology, and reject it. Its fundamental assumptions, epistemology, all the way up to its applications are false and ugly. Just like Sauron, Marxism obsesses about power. We must be like Gandalf, here, and, if we ever do get power, we must use that power to get rid of oppressive power wherever we find it!

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Monday, January 11, 2021

On DuoLingo and the Usual Tired, Leftist Narrative

Don't know if you've ever used DuoLingo, but I have quite a bit, and I find it nice for learning languages. The thing is, like so many large companies lately, it's gone quite left, politically. Here's how it plays out at DuoLingo:

Certain language courses, like Latin-from-English and German-from-English (and probably quite a few more, though I have not noticed it in Hebrew-from-English) introduce obnoxious sentences like these:

Livia uxorem habet. (Livia has a wife; note that Livia is a female name.)

Julia hat eine Frau. (Julia has a wife.)

In the Latin-from-English course, this would be a comical anachronistic error if it wasn't so deadly serious. Of course, it's extremely preachy, self-important, not to mention outright sinful.

The problem is, the presence of these sentences makes DuoLingo inappropriate for children. I can grit my teeth and bear it, because I want to learn and DuoLingo is a great platform in many ways. There is NO WAY I would let my children learn a language from DuoLingo if it has sentences like that. 

So, just a heads-up: be discerning in your use of DuoLingo.

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Wednesday, January 06, 2021

The Beginning of the Accelerated End of the United States of America

It is Jan. 6 as I write this; yesterday, two Democrats got elected as the Senators from Georgia. Today, the Electoral College votes will be opened. It sounds like there will be objections, both from the House and the Senate, but I have little doubt that Kamala Harris [sic] will be sworn in as President (I don't consider Biden to be of much weight, nor likely to live long). That the United States of America, the land of the free, could even consider a Communist like Harris for president is astounding. It really means that the United States of America no longer exists. Welcome to the communist Union of American Socialist Republics (UASR). The door is wide open for the persecution of Christians (and people of other faiths, but primarily Christians) in the UASR on a scale not seen since... last week in China. 

But the moral and ethical decline of the United States began a very long time ago. It was Alexis de Tocqueville who wrote that America was great because America was good. Well, America isn't good any more: 
  1. Abortion was the number one killer in 2020. 
  2. Pornography is rampant, and somehow considered to be "free speech", despite its exploitation of women and children, but also of men.
  3. Sexual ethics from the Bible are largely ignored by most people. Having a child outside of wedlock is considered normal.
  4. Laziness is enshrined and even encouraged in the government welfare system, in direct opposition to what the Bible says in 2 Thess. 3:10b. 
  5. Crimes such as rioting and looting go unpunished.
So these incredibly evil "leaders" that we've "elected" are precisely what the UASR deserves. 

How did we get to such an evil pass? No doubt there are many reasons, but I would put the blame largely at the feet of the church (including myself), and I mean the true church that preaches the gospel of free salvation crafted by the only true and Triune God who has revealed himself in the 66 books of the Bible as well as in the incarnation of the second person of the Trinity, God the Son, in hypostatic union with a completely human nature in the person of Jesus Christ. That true church has failed to do many things:
  1. Preach the gospel. 
  2. Evangelize the lost.
  3. Help the poor and the oppressed (about to become a much larger group of people).
  4. Disciple the nations. 
But I would also put the blame somewhat on the shoulders of the Founding Fathers. Bless them, they did well, but they failed to recognize mechanisms of the power grab, such as Saul Alinsky outlines in his book Rules for Radicals, which I would put at the second-most-evil book ever written, just behind The Communist Manifesto. The Founders recognized that a disarmed people is a vulnerable people, and hence you get the Second Amendment. The Second Amendment, unfortunately, wasn't worded as strongly as it should have been, with that somewhat confusing tie to the militia. It should have been worded like this:

The right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.

But there are two other major sources of power that the Founders didn't account for fully: education and money. 

It was in the mid-1800s that the Unitarians took over Harvard from the Calvinists, the single most important event in the entire history of American education. That led to public "education", the most powerful weapon of brainwashing ever seen. Military oppression pales in comparison to it. So the Founders should have had strong language to prevent public "education" from ever arising. Governments always do things worse than private citizens (unless it's national defense, making laws, or enforcing laws, and possibly roads), so education should be privatized to be the best it can be.

Money, and I include goods and services of any kind along with that, has been shown in all ages to be a powerful corrupting force when used as a bribe. Let me be clear: the Bible establishes quite clearly the right to private property. It simply assumes that. Moreover, there is nothing inherently evil about being rich, or wealth in general. However, the Bible has a LOT to say about bribery. And what is lobbying these days, mostly, except bribery? If lobbying were simply reasoned debate back-and-forth, who could object to that? But when a lobbyist says to a senator, "Hey, I'll take your family out to Disney World.", the line has been crossed into bribery, which is utterly evil. So the Founders should have had strong language about how money, goods, and services get from public officials to private people, and vice versa. Because there is inverse bribery as well, and we've seen that on a large scale: the buying of votes. In the 2020 election there was a lot more voter fraud than that, contrary to the completely untrustworthy Far Left Formerly Mainstream Media (FLFMM). And there should be strong laws about voter fraud.

But really, if you have a generally righteous, self-governing people, with all the safeguards in place I have mentioned in order to protect the people from the encroachments of government, then public officials will have very little power, anyway. Those offices will be much less attractive to the power-hungry, and the issue of bribery will likely be a lot less.

So now what are we to do? I just read Psalm 56 this morning for devotions, and I would commend it to you. We must trust in God. God's people have been in worse situations than this, and God has never let his people down or failed on a single promise. He will not leave us or forsake us. Strengthen yourself in God, as David did when he came back to Ziklag and found all his family gone. 

Pray that you will not forsake your God when persecution comes your way, and it is coming. Remember that evil people can kill your body, but not your soul. And you will eventually get a resurrected body! 

God is greater than all your enemies; so pray for them. If they do not repent of their evil actions, they will go to a place so horrible you wouldn't wish it on your worst enemy: hell itself. Communists need the gospel, the same as do we all. Love your enemies, as Jesus said. Hate the evil ideas, absolutely. Tear down every idea or argument that sets itself up against God, as Paul says in 2 Cor. But don't hate the people who hold to bad ideas, even when they persecute you, hate you, say all kinds of bad things about you, etc.

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Tuesday, December 15, 2020

Pride vs. Humility

Spiritual pride is the number one sin - the worst one - the great granddaddy sin of them all. It's the root cause of all your other sins. And it's the sin aimed at in the very first of the Ten Commandments: you shall have no other gods before me. And that gives us a hint as to a very closely related sin: idolatry. As John Calvin said, "Our hearts are idol factories." We can make an idol out of anything: drink, sex, ambition ... SELF.

Humility is the virtue opposed to pride. But what exactly is humility? Andrew Murray in his work on humility defined it as a "right view of God and a right view of self." When you see God as he has revealed himself in the Bible, and you see yourself as the rotten, stinking sinner we all are, you are getting humility.

There are not many books on humility; Murray is one. One of my previous pastors, Chris Hutchinson, wrote one. He found it hard to do. C. S. Lewis wrote about it some in Screwtape Letters.

As for pride, it's easier to find stuff on that. Here's a great, gigantic list of ways to be spiritually prideful. I certainly found myself a lot there. One I would add: if someone is trying to teach you something, but is not doing it EXACTLY the way you think it ought to be done, maybe that's a sign of pride. Does that person know the subject better than you? Then perhaps that person might have a clue as to how to teach it!


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Wednesday, November 25, 2020

The Burden of Bad Ideas

I've been burdened by a boatload of bad ideas all my life: sinful ideas, unwise ideas, or just plain idiotic ideas. The burden is both from ideas I've held and ideas others have held. As Richard Weaver (should have - I haven't managed to make my way all the way through his book) taught me, ideas have consequences. What are some of these bad ideas, and why are they so bad?

1. Man is basically good. This is one of the worst and most egregious lies ever created, and it goes all the way back to Satan in the garden. In fact, it's one of the father lies - lies that generate a lot of other lies.

2. There are no absolutes. This is perhaps best illustrated by one of the dumbest movie lines ever, in Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith, when Obi-wan Kenobi is about to fight Anakin, and he says, "Only a Sith deals in absolutes." Really? Is that true of all Sith? And make no mistake, Obi-wan is making a statement about all people: everyone who is not a Sith does not deal in absolutes. Is that true for all people? Then you've got yourself a truth that is true for everybody - and hence an absolute. The badness of this idea lies in obliterating the basis for knowing anything. It's logically incoherent, and no one can consistently hold to this.

3. Marxism, communism, socialism, postmodernism, identity politics, intersectionality, and critical (race) theory are good ways to think about history, and good ways to combat injustice. Actually, these ideas all tend to intolerable totalitarianism. Together, these ideas are responsible for over 100 million murders. Think of that: don't you think there's something wrong with ideas that are that murderous?

3.a. Antiracism can only exist within the framework of identity politics, critical theory, and intersectionality. This is one we're seeing a lot recently. And I flatly deny this one as much as any of the others in this list. First of all, you must define racism carefully. I define racism as the sin of partiality applied to people based on their people group (as the concept of race itself certainly has no scientific basis). There can be such a thing as "systemic racism", where the system itself treats people differently based on their people group, but I would argue that the systemically racist aspects of the US system today have more to do with Affirmative Action and welfare and Planned Parenthood than anything else. I would certainly deny that capitalism is inherently racist, but I would argue that all forms of Marxism, based as they are on the erroneous doctrine of evolution, are inherently racist. Affirmative Action and welfare and Planned Parenthood are most definitely racist. Nothing has held down people with more melanin in their skin more than government welfare (more on that in 4.b. below) and Planned Parenthood.

4. Solving societal problems is largely the job of the government. Um, no. The government's job is to solve a few very specific problems: national defense, making and enforcing and interpreting just laws. And I'm willing to pay taxes to support roads. Otherwise, the government's job is to get out of my way so that I can largely try to solve my own problems, my family can solve its problems, and so that the church can help as well. At the root, the government should be absolutely the last resort to solving any problem, mainly because the government (especially the US government) was actually designed to be terrible at solving problems! The Founding Fathers of the US knew what they were doing, both in setting up so many checks and balances to prevent a lot of power from getting concentrated in one place, and in locating the US capital in a swamp so that people wouldn't want to be there very long. The best guarantee of freedom is a limited government from which the people can protect themselves if necessary.

4.a. The government should be in the business of educating people, because we need educated people for a good society. This is related to 4, which is why I've labeled it 4.a. What we have seen is that government education, particularly the near-monopoly that public education in the US is, is one of the greatest instruments for perpetuating totalitarian ideas ever conceived by man. The public schools and the public universities now do more harm than good by spewing out their Marxist garbage. Students are not taught how to think, they are taught what to think: that Marx was actually a good person, and that his ideas are the best way to solve the world's problems (inevitably defined as inequities or disparities among people groups). 

4.b. The government should be in the business of helping people out of poverty. If you read the book When Helping Hurts: How to Alleviate Poverty Without Hurting the Poor ... And Yourself, by Corbett and Fikkert, which I have read, you realize just how complex the problem of poverty is, and how utterly inadequate the "solution" of throwing money at it is. The government is totally unable to solve this problem. In the US, the first amendment (with which I certainly fully agree) alone makes the kind of solution the authors speak of absolutely impossible for the government to do. This means that all the liberal policies starting with LBJ onwards are not only completely ineffective, they hurt the people who advocate those policies, and they hurt the people the policies are supposed to help! Now I would also add that the typical conservative approach of simply getting out of the way will work for some people, but not all. So I'm not saying the conservative approach is complete, but it will work for some people. The liberal policies work for no one. What we need here is for the church to step in and do what it should have been doing all along: helping poor people by coming alongside them, as Corbett and Fikkert have shown us.

4.c. The government should be in the business of solving COVID. This is the job of the medical community, and of people in general acting wisely. Do the people advocating these draconian lockdowns and mask mandates actually think people want to get the virus and perhaps die from it? If so, I would simply claim that such people are radically mistaken, and out of touch with reality. People always act in their own perceived best interests: that's the Law of Human Action

 5. Logic and careful definitions and good statistics are outdated ideas. This idea goes back a ways - all the way to "... William of Occam who propounded the fateful doctrine of nominalism, which denies that universals have a real existence. His triumph tended to leave universal terms mere names serving our convenience." - Ideas Have Consequences, p. 3. We absolutely must get back to good logic, careful definitions, consistency, and well-done statistics (I would argue with the new causal revolution folded in). 

6. Disparities imply discrimination. Thomas Sowell has taught us that this variant of post hoc, ergo propter hoc is no more valid than its parent fallacy. Just because Asians do better academically than Americans with pale skin doesn't mean that the Americans are discriminated against. There are all kinds of causal questions bound up with why disparities exist, and not all of them are bad. The liberals (and particularly the critical theories and intersectionality folks) would have you believe that if people with more melanin in their skin don't do as well in college as people with less melanin in their skin, that therefore there must be discrimination against those with more melanin. Sowell has effectively destroyed that argument in the book to which I linked; I would highly recommend that book, which I have read. 

7. Christianity has been tried and found wanting. This one is, of course, older than the hills (literally). Chesterton's refutation cannot be bettered: "Christianity has not been tried and found wanting; it has been found difficult and not tried." And this is really the most important of all the bad ideas I've listed. For it is in the Bible that we find the refutation of these bad ideas; perhaps not specifically, but we get wise principles that guide us. We need God the Holy Spirit to show us what the Bible means, for sure. 

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Tuesday, March 10, 2020

The Spectre Haunting the World

In 1848, Karl Marx and Frederick Engels published The Communist Manifesto, quite possibly the most evil (and just plain wrong) books ever written in the entire history of mankind. It is not my intention to argue that right now, although the reasons are many.

I want to point out the current situation. The first line of The Communist Manifesto is as follows:

A spectre is haunting Europe—the spectre of Communism. 

Marx wrote that line, sort of from the point of view of the opponents of Communism, and it was his intention to explain what Communism is so that the critics would become proponents. However, I interpret the line very differently, and not at all how Marx intended (I would ask forgiveness for yanking something out of context, but Marx deserves to be paid zero attention, anyway.) I interpret that line as someone unalterably opposed to the evils of Marxism, Communism, socialism, and its ugly off-shoots of post-modernism, critical theory, and intersectionality. This spectre is now haunting the entire world!

Consider that the communists now control the media, the state universities, the public schools, and much of the political machinery of many countries in the world - certainly the United States. As a result, the media is not to be trusted an inch on... anything. The public schools and state universities are brain-washing their students instead of teaching them to think, and politics, at least in the U.S., has run amok to the point of seriously considering electing a Communist like Bernie Sanders for the President of the United States.

It would be easy to simply cave in and give up. How can people work against those odds? The Communists in the U.S. are working very hard to curtail both First and Second Amendment rights (this working of theirs is fully in accordance with their bizarre epistemology - see the article "Welcome to Culture War 2.0" by atheist Peter Boghossian for an extremely helpful discussion of this.) so that the American people will not be able to fight back against them, once they gain power.

But here's the thing, and this is my main point: when the situation looks this black, we must look to 2 Kings 6:16. The context there is that the king of Syria wants to "order" the prophet Elisha to appear before him, as before a tribunal, because Elisha has been repeating everything the king of Syria says to the king of Israel, with the result that Syria has not been able to oppress Israel and defeat Israel the way they want. So the king of Syria sends a huge army to get Elisha. Then the passage reads thus:

15 When the servant of the man of God rose early in the morning and went out, behold, an army with horses and chariots was all around the city. And the servant said, “Alas, my master! What shall we do?” 16 He said, “Do not be afraid, for those who are with us are more than those who are with them.” 17 Then Elisha prayed and said, “O Lord, please open his eyes that he may see.” So the Lord opened the eyes of the young man, and he saw, and behold, the mountain was full of horses and chariots of fire all around Elisha. 
This is what we must never forget. We're not allowed to despair, because God is in control, and he wins (this is what the book of Revelation is all about). In the end, the current control of the media, the universities, and much of the political system by the Communists will be irrelevant in the face of Almighty God judging the nations. I've often heard the phrase, "You want to be on the right side of history." - usually from the extreme leftists. This represents a fundamental misunderstanding as to what that "right side of history" is going to be. Revelation makes it all clear!

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Monday, January 18, 2016

Aorist Passive Participle in the Great Commission

In Matthew 28:19, the original Greek reads

πορευθέντες οὖν μαθητεύσατε πάντα τὰ ἔθνη

βαπτίζοντες αὐτοὺς εἰς τὸὄνομα τοῦ πατρὸς 
καὶ τοῦ υἱοῦ καὶ τοῦ ἁγίου πνεύματος,...

Now that first word, πορευθέντες, is an aorist passive participle. I have not seen a single translation that gets this correct. They all translate this word as "Go" - an imperative. But the aorist passive participle does not have "mood". A better translation would be, "Having been sent".

The theological implications of this translation are important, I think. The passage most emphatically does NOT mean that you must leave your current location, go somewhere else, and make disciples. The passage says that you are already where God has called you to be. Now make disciples where you are.

Now you should not interpret my comments here as saying that nobody is ever called to move anywhere. Nor should you think that I am saying we do not need missionaries: we do. I am saying that the missionary calling to go elsewhere should not be foisted on people from this passage. This passage will not bear that weight.

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Sunday, February 16, 2014

Sabbath Musings

I've been puzzling a great deal about the Sabbath. I've found it extraordinarily difficult to sort out what this commandment is all about, what it means and what it doesn't mean. So I thought I'd blog about it, so as to order my thoughts about it better, as well as perhaps get some feedback. 

Where to start? Well, the Bible is always the Christian's epistemology: the Holy Spirit persuades us the Bible is true. So here are some relevant passages (all in ESV):

Exodus 20:8-11

"Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy. Six days you shall labor, and do all your work, 10 but the seventh day is a Sabbath to the Lord your God. On it you shall not do any work, you, or your son, or your daughter, your male servant, or your female servant, or your livestock, or the sojourner who is within your gates. 11 For in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that is in them, and rested on the seventh day. Therefore the Lord blessed the Sabbath day and made it holy."

Deuteronomy 5:12-15

12 Observe the Sabbath day, to keep it holy, as the Lord your God commanded you. 13 Six days you shall labor and do all your work, 14 but the seventh day is a Sabbath to the Lord your God. On it you shall not do any work, you or your son or your daughter or your male servant or your female servant, or your ox or your donkey or any of your livestock, or the sojourner who is within your gates, that your male servant and your female servant may rest as well as you. 15 You shall remember that you were a slave in the land of Egypt, and the Lord your God brought you out from there with a mighty hand and an outstretched arm. Therefore the Lord your God commanded you to keep the Sabbath day.

Isaiah 58:13-14

13 If you turn back your foot from the Sabbath,
    from doing your pleasure on my holy day,
and call the Sabbath a delight
    and the holy day of the Lord honorable;
if you honor it, not going your own ways,
    or seeking your own pleasure, or talking idly;
14 then you shall take delight in the Lord,
    and I will make you ride on the heights of the earth;
I will feed you with the heritage of Jacob your father,
    for the mouth of the Lord has spoken.

 Also of interest: Matthew 12, Mark 2 and 3, Luke 6, 13, and 14. There are plenty of places in the Bible where the Sabbath is mentioned - especially in the Pentateuch. 

So, what can we say from all this data? First, let me define some terms. The "Sabbath" is the one day in seven that God has set aside for rest and public worship. Until the Resurrection of Christ, this was on the last day of the week: Saturday, to reflect the original creation. But, since the Resurrection, the Christian Sabbath has been on Sunday, to reflect the new creation we have in Christ.

  1. I think it is fairly clear that the Sabbath has been around since the Creation. See the Exodus 20 passage, and the reason for the Sabbath commandment. Since it's a creation ordinance, I see no reason why we should stop observing the Sabbath. Jesus did not abolish the law in the NT, He fulfilled it. And when He was "breaking" the Sabbath, if you read those passages in context, I think you would rather say that He was restoring the Sabbath back to what it should have been. The Pharisees had put up all kinds of additional commandments around the Sabbath, ostensibly to prevent themselves from actually breaking the Sabbath. But these burdensome commandments had obscured the true meaning of the Sabbath. 
  2. We are not to obey this commandment in order to earn salvation. That's impossible. We are to obey this commandment, because loving God and obeying God are the same thing, and God has loved us first. We are to obey it because we are grateful for the tremendous salvation God has given us. This is the third use of the law: to inform the life of the believer. Furthermore, to say that someone who is serious about trying to keep the Sabbath must be a legalist is nonsense. Would you say that a believer who is doing his best not to murder someone or commit adultery is being a "legalist"? Give the Sabbatarians a break, here! Because of this, I think it is definitely worthwhile to think about just what this commandment means. 
  3. The gist of the Exodus and Deuteronomy commandments seems to be this: cease doing your work that you need to do in order to have food on the table, a roof over your head, and clothes on your body; devote the day to resting and to God. Delighting in God seems a major theme, when you consider the Isaiah passage. This should not be a drudgery, as Laura Ingalls Wilder portrayed it in her Little House series. We should want to worship God on this day. 
  4. The Isaiah 58 passage is challenging. To me, the debate hinges on the meaning of the word translated "pleasure", in verse 13. If you look this word up in Strong's (it's translated "pleasure" in the KJV as well), you can find the exact word used. Then, if you look that word up in the Concise Hebrew-Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament (CHALOT), you find that this word has four meanings: 1. Joy, pleasure. 2. Wish. 3. Costly jewels. 4. Affair, business. CHALOT quotes Isaiah 58:13 has having the fourth meaning: affair or business. I think you can see that this meaning (that of "affair" or "business") has a more restricted meaning than "pleasure", at least for the purposes of this passage. If we take this word in the fourth sense, then Isaiah is not adding anything to the meaning already present in Exodus and Deuteronomy. Here's the passage in "Keister Standard Version":

    13 If you turn back your foot from the Sabbath,
        from doing your business on my holy day,
    and call the Sabbath a delight
        and the holy day of the Lord honorable;
    if you honor it, not going your own ways,
        or seeking your own business, or talking idly;
    14 then you shall take delight in the Lord,
        and I will make you ride on the heights of the earth;
    I will feed you with the heritage of Jacob your father,
        for the mouth of the Lord has spoken. (Emphasis added.)

    Wonderful promises! If we needed more incentives to keep the Sabbath, here are some great ones! Probably you can see what I'm getting at here: Isaiah 58:13-14 is the only passage that the strict Sabbatarians (Puritan view, Westminster Standards view, bless them!) can muster to support their view that recreations lawful on other days of the week are not lawful on the Sabbath. Here's an imaginary conversation between a strict Sabbatarian and a Continentalist:
    Strict Sabbatarian: Isaiah 58:13-14!!!
    Continentalist: You keep using that verse. I do not think it means what you think it means. 

    So I do not hold to the strict Sabbatarian view, or the Puritan view, of the Sabbath. I have respect for it, and I do think that the Westminster Standards teach the Puritan view. So, this has to be my one exception (or "quibble", as we say in the OPC!) with the Westminster Standards.

  5. Where does the rubber hit the road? When you decide what you will actually do and not do on the Sabbath. How can you decide what that will be? Well, I propose this grid for determining what is lawful on the Sabbath (and here I have to make exceptions for pastors, doctors, police, etc., who have to work on Sunday. For them, they should simply celebrate the Sabbath on a different day.): whatever is necessary for you to do in order to put food on the table, a roof over your head, and clothes on your body, is, generally, what you should not do on the Sabbath. Exceptions: when your ox is in the ditch, so to speak, you get it out. What does that mean? It means that if something happens that would severely interfere with your ability to put food on the table, etc., then you deal with it when you need to. If that's on the Sabbath, that's ok. You can think of it as a work of necessity. Examples: normal chores that simply have to be done, like dishes. Or if, through no fault of your own, you've found out something at work has to be dealt with asap, then you do that. I think this is predicated on having prepared for the Sabbath. If you find yourself getting oxes out of ditches pretty much every Sabbath, then you should ask yourself whether you've prepared for the Sabbath adequately! Another exception is works of mercy. Jesus healed on the Sabbath, and we should do likewise. I think lawful recreations are perfectly fine on the Sabbath. You need to rest your body on the Sabbath, so that Sunday afternoon nap is a great idea! You should worship on Sunday as well. I particularly like morning and evening worship on Sundays, but a lot of churches don't have that any more, alas. 
  6. So here's what I would recommend when you are thinking about whether something is lawful to do on the Sabbath or not: ask yourself if it's necessary for you to do in order to put food on the table, or a roof over your head, or clothes on your body. If so, you should not do it unless your ox is in the ditch. If not, then ask yourself if it will be relaxing, or stressful. If it will be stressful, then think twice about doing it! If relaxing, then it's probably fine. However, whatever it is shouldn't get in the way of public worship, which is the single most important thing you do all week. It also shouldn't get in the way of works of mercy and necessity. I doubt this little rubric will cover all possibilities, so I'm open to suggestions. What are your thoughts? 

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So here it is, my ginormous humanities reading list. I've constructed it painstakingly out of many other lists. I've included most major works of literature, history, philosophy, and economics. I've left out mathematics, most science, and medicine.

Humanities Reading List

  •  (Sum.) (c. 2000 BC): Epic of Gilgamesh
  •  Learn Hebrew: Weingreen's A Practical Grammar for Classical Hebrew
  •  (Heb.) (1400 BC) God: Old Testament
  •  Learn Greek: Groton's From Alpha to Omega
  •  (Gr.) Homer (850 BC): Iliad, Odyssey
  •  (Gr.) Hesiod (750 BC - 650 BC): Complete Loeb Edition
  •  (Gr.) Sappho (630 BC - 570 BC): Poetry
  •  (Gr.) Aesop (620 BC - 564 BC): Fables (Babrius Collection)
  •  (Ch.) Confucius (551 BC - 479 BC): Analects
  •  (Ch.) Tzu (544 BC - 496 BC): The Art of War
  •  (Gr.) Aeschylus (525 BC - 455 BC): Oresteia: Agamemnon, Libation-Bearers, The Eumeides, Prometheus Bound
  •  (Gr.) Pindar (522 BC - 443 BC): Complete Loeb Edition
  •  (Heb./Gr.) (500 BC - 0 AD): Apocrypha
  •  (Gr.) Sophocles (497 BC - 406 BC): Ajax, Electra, Oedipus Tyrannus, Antigone, Oedipus at Colonus, Philoctetes
  •  (Gr.) Gorgias (485 BC - 380 BC): Encomium, Defense of Palamedes
  •  (Gr.) Herodotus (484 BC - 425 BC): The Histories
  •  (Gr.) Euripides (480 BC - 406 BC): Iphigenia at Aulis, Orestes, Iphigenia amoung the Taurians, Electra, Heracles, Children of Heracles, Hippolytus, Andromache, Hecuba, The Bacchae, Medea
  •  (Gr.) Thucydides (460 BC - 395 BC): History of the Peloponnesian War
  •  (Gr.) Aristophanes (446 BC - 386 BC): Frogs, Birds, Lysistrata, Clouds, Wasps, Peace
  •  (Gr.) Xenophon (430 BC - 354 BC): Memorabilia, Oeconomicus, Symposium, Apology
  •  (Gr.) Plato (428 BC - 427 BC): The Republic, Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, Phaedo, Phaedrus, Laws, Meno, Gorgias, Symposium, Parmenides, Theaetetus, Sophist, Timaeus, Protagoras
  •  (Gr.) Aristotle (384 BC - 322 BC): Rhetoric, Nicomachean Ethics, Physics, Metaphysics, Politics, Poetics, Categories, On Interpretation, Prior Analytics, Posterior Analytics, Topics, Sophistical Refutations, On the Soul
  •  (Gr.) Demosthenes (384 BC - 322 BC): Orations
  •  (Gr.) Menander (342 BC - 291 BC): Complete Loeb Edition
  •  (Gr.) Aratus (315 BC - 240 BC): Phaenomena
  •  Learn Latin: Orberg: Lingua Latina
  •  (La.) Plautus (254 BC - 184 BC): Complete Loeb Edition
  •  (Gr.) Polybius (200 BC - 118 BC): Histories
  •  (Gr.) (132 BC): Septuagint
  •  (La.) Cicero (106 BC - 43 BC): Rhetorica ad Herennium, On Friendship and Old Age, Orations, On Invention
  •  (La.) Caesar (100 BC - 44 BC): Commentaries
  •  (La.) Lucretius (99BC - 55BC): On the Nature of Things
  •  (La.) Catullus (84 BC - 54 BC): Poetry
  •  (La.) Vitruvius (80 BC - 15 BC): On Architecture
  •  (La.) Virgil (70 BC - 19 BC): Aeneid
  •  (La.) Horace (65 BC - 8 BC): Odes, Epodes, Satires, The Art of Poetry
  •  (La.) Livy (59 BC - AD 17): History of Rome
  •  (La.) Ovid (43 BC - AD 17): Metamorphoses
  •  (La.) Phaedrus (15 BC - AD 50): Fables Collection
  •  (La.) Seneca (1 BC - AD 65): Tragedies, Natural Questions, Moral Essays
  •  (La.) Pliny (AD 23 - AD 79): Naturalis Historia
  •  (La.) Quintilian (AD 35 - AD 100): Declamations, Orations, Institutio Oratoria
  •  (Gr.) Josephus (AD 37 - AD 100): The Jewish War, Antiquities of the Jews
  •  (Gr.) Plutarch (AD 46 - AD 120): Lives, Moralia
  •  (La.) Juvenal (c. AD 50 - AD 150): Juvenal and Persius
  •  (Gr.) Epictetus (AD 55 - AD 135): Discourses, The Encheiridion, Manual
  •  (La.) Tacitus (AD 56 - AD 117): Annals, Histories, Dialogue on Oratory, Agricola, Germania
  •  (Gr.) God: New Testament
  •  (Gr.) Arrian (AD 86 - AD 160): Anabasis of Alexander
  •  (Gr.) (c. 100) Didache
  •  (Gr.) Marcus Aurelius (AD 121 - AD 180): Meditations
  •  (Gr.) Lucian (AD 125 - AD 180): The Way to Write History, The True History, The Sale of Creeds
  •  (Gr.) Clement of Alexandria (AD 150 - AD 215): The Exhortation to the Greeks, The Rich Man's Salvation, To the Newly Baptized
  •  (La.) Tertullian (AD 160 - AD 220): Apology, De Spectaculis, Minucius Felix: Octavius
  •  (Gr.) Plotinus (AD 204 - AD 270): Enneads
  •  (Gr.) Eusebius (AD 263 - AD 339): Ecclesiastical History
  •  (La.) Jerome (AD 347 - AD 420): Letters, Vulgate
  •  (La.) Augustine (AD 354 - AD 430): Confessions, City of God, On the Teacher, Christian Doctrine
  •  (La.) Capella (AD 410 - AD 429): De nuptiis
  •  (La.) Boethius (AD 480 - AD 524): The Consolation of Philosophy
  •  (La.) Cassiodorus (AD 485 - AD 585): Chronica, Gothic History, De anima, De Artibus ac Disciplinis Liberalium Litterarum, Institutiones Divinarum et Saecularium Litterarum
  •  (Ar.) Muhammad (AD 570 - AD 632): Koran
  •  (OE) Caedmon (c. AD 657): Hymn
  •  (La.) Bede (AD 672 - AD 735): Ecclesiastical History of the English People
  •  (La.?) Einhard (AD 775 - AD 840): Vita Karoli Magna
  •  (OE) (c. AD 800): Beowulf
  •  (OE) (AD 991): The Battle of Maldon
  •  Learn Icelandic: Einarsson's Icelandic: Grammar, Text and Glossary, Bayldon's An Elementary Grammar of the Old Norse or Icelandic Language, Gordon's An Introduction to Old Norse
  •  (O.Nor.) skaldaspillir (AD 900's): Hakonarmal
  •  (La.) Anselm of Canterbury (AD 1033 - AD 1109): Proslogion
  •  (La.) Abelard (AD 1079 - AD 1142): Abelard and Heloise, Dialectica, Tractatus de intellectibus, Dialogue of a Philosopher with a Jew and a Christian, Ethics
  •  (La.) Lombard (AD 1100 - AD 1160): Four Books of Sentences
  •  (Ar.) Averroes (AD 1126 - AD 1198): Commentaries on Aristotle and Plato, Decisive Treatise and Epistle Dedicatory
  •  (Heb.) Maimonides (AD 1135 - AD 1204: Mishneh Torah
  •  Learn Old French:
  •  (Fr.) (AD 1155): La Chanson de Roland
  •  Learn Middle High German:
  •  (MHG) Eschenbach (AD 1170 - AD 1220): Parzival
  •  (MHG) Vogelweide (AD 1170 - AD 1230): Poetry
  •  (Ice.) Sturluson (AD 1179 - AD 1241): Snorra Edda, Heimskringla
  •  (Sp.) (AD 1195 - AD 1207): The Lay of the Cid
  •  (MHG) Strassburg (AD 1210): Tristan
  •  (Ice.) (AD 1220): Fagrskinna
  •  (La.) Aquinas (AD 1225 - AD 1274): Summa Theologica, Summa contra Gentiles
  •  (Fr.) de Lorris (AD 1230) and de Meun (AD 1250 - AD 1305): Roman de la Rose
  •  (MHG) (AD 1250): Das Nibelungenlied
  •  (Ice.) (AD 1250): Völsungasaga
  •  (Fr.) Polo (AD 1254 - AD 1324): Livres des merveilles du monde
  •  (Ice.) (AD 1270): Poetic Edda
  •  (Ice.) (AD 1275): Njáls saga
  •  Learn Italian:
  •  (It.) Dante (AD 1265 - AD 1321): La Grande Commedia, La Vita Nuova, De Monarchia
  •  (La.) Occam (AD 1288 - AD 1347): Summa logicae, Quaestiones et decisiones in quattuor libros Sententiarum Petri Lombardi
  •  (It.) Petrarch (AD 1304 - AD 1374): Il Canzoniere, Trionfi
  •  (It.) Boccaccio (AD 1313 - AD 1375): Decameron
  •  (ME) Langland (AD 1332 - AD 1386): Vision of Piers Plowman
  •  (ME) Chaucer (AD 1343 - AD 1400): Canterbury Tales, Troilus and Criseyde
  •  (ME) (AD 1390): Sir Gawain and the Green Knight
  •  (ME) Malory (AD 1405 - AD 1471): Le Morte d'Arthur
  •  (It.) Machiavelli (AD 1469 - AD 1527): Il Principe, Discorsi sopra la prima deca di Tito Livio
  •  (La.) Erasmus (AD 1469 0 AD 1536): Stultitiae Laus
  •  (It.) Ariosto (AD 1474 - AD 1533): Orlando Furioso
  •  (La.) More (AD 1478 - AD 1535): Libellus vere aureus, nec minus salutaris quam festivus, de optimo rei publicae statu deque nova insula Utopia
  •  Learn High German: Hammer's German Grammar
  •  (Ger.) Luther (AD 1483 - AD 1546): An den christlichen Adel deutscher Nation, Prelude on the Babylonian Captivity of the Church, Von der Freiheit eines Christenmenschen, Tischreden, Bibel, Disputatio pro declaratione virtutis indulgentiarum
  •  (Eng.) Cranmer (AD 1489 - AD 1556): Book of Common Prayer, Thirty-Nine Articles
  •  Learn French:
  •  (Fr.) Rabelais (AD 1494 - 1553): La vie de Gargantua et de Pantagruel
  •  (It.) Cellini (AD 1500 - AD 1571): Autobiography
  •  (Eng.) Wyatt (AD 1503 - AD 1542): Poems of Thomas Wyatt
  •  (La., Fr.) Calvin (AD 1509 - AD 1564): Institutes
  •  (It.) Vasari (AD 1511 - AD 1574): Le Vite de' più eccellenti pittori, scultori, ed architettori
  •  (Eng.) Foxe (AD 1517 - AD 1587): Book of Martyrs
  •  (Fr.) Montaigne (AD 1533 - AD 1592): Essais
  •  (Ice.) Thorlaksson (AD 1541 - AD 1627): Bible
  •  (Sp.) Cervantes (AD 1547 - AD 1616): Don Quixote
  •  (Eng.) Spenser (AD 1552 - AD 1599): Faerie Queene, Prothalamion
  •  (Eng.) Sydney (AD 1554 - AD 1586): Defense of Poesy
  •  Bacon (AD 1561 - AD 1626): (La.) Novum Organum, (La.) Nova Atlantis, (Eng.) Essays, (Eng.) Advancement of Learning
  •  (Eng.) Marlowe (AD 1564 - AD 1593): Doctor Faustus, The Jew of Malta
  •  (Eng.) Shakespeare (AD 1564 - AD 1616): Complete Works
  •  (Eng.) Donne (AD 1572 - AD 1631): Songs and Sonnets, Holy Sonnets, Sermons
  •  (Eng.) Jonson (AD 1572 - AD 1637): Timber
  •  (It.) Diodati (AD 1576 - AD 1649): Bible
  •  (La.) Ussher (AD 1581 - AD 1656): Annales Veteris Testamenti, a prima mundi origine deducti, una cum rerum Asiaticarum et Aegyptiacarum chronico, a temporis historici principio usque ad Maccabaicorum initia producto
  •  (Eng.) Hobbes (AD 1588 - AD 1679): Leviathan
  •  (Eng.) Bradford (AD 1590 - AD 1657): Of Plymouth Plantation
  •  (La.) Comenius (AD 1592 - AD 1670): Didactica Magna
  •  (Eng.) Herbert (AD 1593 - AD 1633): The Temple
  •  (Eng.) Walton (AD 1593 - AD 1683): The Compleat Angler, The Lives of - John Donne - Sir Henry Wotton - Richard Hooker - George Herbert & Robert Sanderson
  •  Descartes (AD 1596 - AD 1650): (Fr.) Discours de la méthode pour bien conduire sa raison, et chercher la vérité dans les sciences, (La.) Meditationes de prima philosophia, (La. or Fr.) Regulae ad directionem ingenii
  •  (Eng.) Rutherford (AD 1600 - AD 1661): Lex Rex
  •  (Eng.) Browne (AD 1605 - AD 1682): Religio Medici
  •  (Eng.) Milton (AD 1608 - AD 1674): Sonnets, Paradise Lost, On Education, Areopagitica, Samson Agonistes
  •  (Eng.) (AD 1611): King James Bible
  •  (Fr.) La Rochefoucauld (AD 1613 - AD 1680): Maximes
  •  (Eng.) Evelyn (AD 1620 - AD 1706): Diary
  •  (Ger.) Grimmelshausen (AD 1621 - AD 1676): Simplicius Simplicissimus
  •  (Eng.) Marvell (AD 1621 - AD 1678): "To His Coy Mistress"
  •  (Fr.) La Fontaine (AD 1621 - AD 1695): Fables Choisies
  •  (Fr.) Moliere (AD 1622 - AD 1673): Tartuffe, ou l'Imposteur, Le Misanthrope, L'Avare, L'école des femmes, Dom Juan ou le Festin de pierre
  •  (Fr.) Pascal (AD 1623 - AD 1662): Pensees, Lettres provinciales
  •  (Eng.) Bunyan (AD 1628 - AD 1688): Pilgrim's Progress
  •  (Eng.) Dryden (AD 1631 - AD 1700): Absalom and Achitophel, MacFlecknoe
  •  (La.) Spinoza (AD 1632 - AD 1677): Tractatus Theologico-Politicus, Ethics
  •  (Eng.) Locke (AD 1632 - AD 1704): An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Second Treatise of Government, Letter Concerning Toleration, Thoughts Concerning Education
  •  (Eng.) Pepys (AD 1633 - AD 1703): Diary
  •  (Fr.) La Fayette (AD 1634 - AD 1693): La Princesse de Cleves
  •  (Fr.) Racine (AD 1639 - AD 1699): Andromache, Phaedra
  •  (Fr.) Leibniz (AD 1646 - AD 1716): Monadology, Discourse on Metaphysics, Nouveaux essais sur l'entendement humain
  •  (Eng.) Defoe (AD 1659 - AD 1731): Robinson Crusoe, Moll Flanders
  •  (Eng.) Swift (AD 1667 - AD 1745): Gulliver's Travels, A Tale of a Tub, Journal to Stella, A Modest Proposal
  •  (Eng.) Congreve (AD 1670 - AD 1729): The Way of the World
  •  (Eng.) Addison (AD 1672 - 1719): The Spectator
  •  (Eng.) Berkeley (AD 1685 - AD 1753): Principles of Human Knowledge
  •  (Eng.) Pope (AD 1688 - AD 1744): The Rape of the Lock, The Dunciad, Essay on Criticism, Essay on Man
  •  (Fr.) Montesquieu (AD 1689 - AD 1755): The Spirit of the Laws
  •  (Eng.) Richardson (AD 1689 - AD 1761): Clarissa
  •  (Eng.) Montagu (AD 1689 - AD 1762): Letters
  •  (Fr.) Voltaire (AD 1694 - AD 1778): Letters on the English, Candide, Philosophical Dictionary
  •  (Eng.) Franklin (AD 1706 - AD 1790): Poor Richard's Almanack, Autobiography
  •  (Eng.) Fielding (AD 1707 - AD 1754): Tom Jones, Joseph Andrews, Shamela
  •  (Eng.) Johnson (AD 1709 - AD 1784): Preface to Shakespeare, The Vanity of Human Wishes, Rasselas, The Lives of the Poets, A Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland
  •  (Eng.) Hume (AD 1711 - AD 1776): Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, A Treatise of Human Nature, Essays Moral and Political, The History of England
  •  (Fr.) Rousseau (AD 1712 - AD 1778): Emile, Julie, Confessions, Discourse on the Origin of Inequality, On the Social Contract, On Political Economy
  •  (Eng.) Sterne (AD 1713 - AD 1768): Tristram Shandy, A Sentimental Journey Through France and Italy
  •  (Fr.) Diderot (AD 1713 - AD 1784): Jacques le fataliste et son maitre, La religieuse
  •  (Eng.) Gray (AD 1716 - AD 1771): "Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard"
  •  (Eng.) Blackstone (AD 1723 - AD 1780): Commentaries
  •  (Eng.) Smith (AD 1723 - AD 1790): The Wealth of Nations, The Theory of the Moral Sentiments
  •  (Fr.) (AD 1724): Ostervald Bible
  •  (Ger.) Kant (AD 1724 - AD 1804): Critique of Pure Reason, Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals, Metaphysics of Morals, Critique of Practical Reason, Critique of Judgement, Perpetual Peace
  •  (Ger.) Mendelssohn (AD 1729 - AD 1786): Phädon, Jerusalem or on Religious Might and Judaism
  •  (Eng.) Burke (AD 1729 - AD 1797): Reflections on the Revolution in France
  •  (Ger.) Hamann (AD 1730 - AD 1788): Sokratische Denkwurdigkeiten, Aesthetica in nuce, Gedanken uber meinen Lebenslauf, Kreuzzuge des Philologen, Golgotha and Scheblimini! By a Preacher in the Wilderness
  •  (Eng.) MacPherson (AD 1736 - AD 1796): The Works of Ossian
  •  (Eng.) Gibbon (AD 1737 - AD 1794): History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Autobiography
  •  (Eng.) Paine (AD 1737 - AD 1809): Rights of Man, Common Sense
  •  (Eng.) Boswell (AD 1740 - AD 1795): The Life of Samuel Johnson
  •  (Fr.) Laclos (AD 1741 - AD 1803): Les Liaisons Dangereuses
  •  (Ger.) Wyss (AD 1743 - AD 1818): Swiss Family Robinson
  •  (Ger.) von Herder (AD 1744 - AD 1803): Treatise on the Origin of Language, Auszug aus einem Briefwechsel über Ossian und die Lieder alter Völker
  •  (Eng.) Bentham (AD 1748 - AD 1832): Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation, Theory of Fictions
  •  (Ger.) Goethe (AD 1749 - AD 1832): Faust, The Sorrows of Young Werther, Poetry and Truth
  •  (Eng.) Blake (AD 1757 - AD 1827): Songs of Innocence and of Experience
  •  (Eng.) Burns (AD 1759 - AD 1796): Songs and Poems
  •  (Eng.) Wollstonecraft (AD 1759 - AD 1797): A Vindication of the Rights of Woman
  •  (Ger.) Schiller (AD 1759 - AD 1805): Die Räuber, William Tell, Wallenstein Trilogy, Über die ästhetische Erziehung des Menschen
  •  (Ger.) von Gentz (AD 1764 - AD 1832): The Origin and Principles of the American Revolution (Eng. Translation by John Quincy Adams)
  •  (Eng.) Malthus (AD 1766 - AD 1834): An Essay on the Principle of Population
  •  (Fr.) Chateaubriand (AD 1768 - AD 1848): Atala, Rene
  •  (Ger.) Hegel (AD 1770 - AD 1832): Introductory Lectures on Aesthetics, Philosophy of History, Science of Logic, Phenomenology of Spirit, Philosophy of Right
  •  (Eng.) Hogg (AD 1770 - AD 1835): Confessions of a Justified Sinner
  •  (Eng.) Wordsworth (AD 1770 - AD 1850): "Tintern Abbey", Preface to Lyrical Ballads, "Ode: Intimations of Immortality", The Prelude, Lucy poems, Sonnets
  •  (Eng.) Scott (AD 1771 - AD 1832): Ivanhoe, Rob Roy, The Lady of the Lake, Waverly, The Heart of Midlothian, The Bride of Lammermoor, Kenilworth, The Talisman, A Legend of Montrose
  •  (Eng.) Owen (AD 1771 - AD 1858): A New View of Society, Book of the New Moral World, Revolution in the Mind and Practice of the Human Race
  •  (Eng.) Ricardo (AD 1772 - AD 1823): Principles of Political Economy and Taxation
  •  (Ger.) Schlegel (AD 1772 - AD 1829): Geschichte, Sämtliche Werke
  •  (Eng.) Coleridge (AD 1772 - AD 1834): The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, Kubla Khan, Biographica Literaria
  •  (Eng.) Austen (AD 1775 - AD 1817): Complete Works
  •  (Eng.) Lamb (AD 1775 - AD 1834): Essays of Elia
  •  (Eng.) Landor (AD 1775 - AD 1864): Imaginary Conversations
  •  (Eng.) (AD 1776): US Declaration of Independence
  •  (Eng.) Hazlitt (AD 1778 - AD 1830): Selected Essays of William Hazlitt 1778 To 1830
  •  (Ger.) Clausewitz (AD 1780 - AD 1831): On War
  •  (Fr.) Stendhal (AD 1783 - AD 1842): The Red and the Black, The Charterhouse of Parma, On Love
  •  (Eng.) Leigh Hunt (AD 1784 - AD 1859): Essays
  •  (Eng.) Irving (AD 1783 - AD 1859): The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent
  •  (Ger.) Grimm (AD 1785 - 1863): Fairy Tales
  •  (It.) Manzoni (AD 1785 - AD 1873): I Promessi Sposi
  •  (Eng.) (AD 1787) Federalist Papers, Anti-Federalist Papers
  •  (Eng.) (AD 1787) US Constitution and Amendments
  •  (Eng.) Byron (AD 1788 - AD 1824): Don Juan
  •  (Ger.) Schopenhauer (AD 1788 - AD 1860): The World as Will and Representation
  •  (Eng.) Cooper (AD 1789 - AD 1851): The Deerslayer, The Last of the Mohicans, The Pathfinder, The Pioneers, The Prairie
  •  (Eng.) Percy Shelley (AD 1792 - AD 1822): "Ode to the West Wind", "To a Skylark"
  •  (Eng.) Keats (AD 1795 - AD 1821): "Ode on a Grecian Urn", "Ode to a Nightingale", "To Autumn"
  •  (Eng.) Carlyle (AD 1795 - AD 1881): The French Revolution: A History
  •  (Eng.) Mary Shelley (AD 1797 - AD 1851): Frankenstein
  •  (Ger.) Heine (AD 1797 - AD 1856): Various Works
  •  (Fr.) Comte (AD 1798 - AD 1857): The Positive Philosophy
  •  (Rus.) Pushkin (AD 1799 - AD 1837): The Captain's Daughter, Boris Godunov, Eugene Onegin
  •  (Fr.) Balzac (AD 1799 - AD 1850): La Comedie humaine, Father Goriot
  •  (Eng.) Macaulay (AD 1800 - AD 1859): The History of England from the Accession of James II
  •  (Eng.) Newman (AD 1801 - AD 1890): Apologia pro Vita Sua, Discourses on the Scope and Nature of University Education, Idea of a University
  •  (Fr.) Dumas (AD 1802 - AD 1870): The Count of Monte Cristo, The Three Musketeers
  •  (Finn.) Lönnrot (AD 1802 - AD 1884): Kalevala
  •  (Fr.) Hugo (AD 1802 - AD 1885): Les Miserables, The Hunchback of Notre Dame, Les Contemplations
  •  (Fr.) Berlioz (AD 1803 - AD 1869): Memoirs
  •  (Eng.) Emerson (AD 1803 - AD 1882): Essays: First and Second Series, Representative Men, Journal, Self-Reliance
  •  (Eng.) Hawthorne (AD 1804 - AD 1864): Scarlet Letter, House of the Seven Gables, Blithedale Romance, Mosses from an Old Manse, Tanglewood Tales
  •  (Eng.) Smith (AD 1805 - AD 1844): Book of Mormon
  •  (Fr.) de Tocqueville (AD 1805 - AD 1859): Democracy in America, 'Ancien Régime et la Révolution
  •  (Dan.) Anderson (AD 1805 - AD 1875): Fairy Tales
  •  (Eng.) Elizabeth Browning (AD 1806 - AD 1861): Sonnets from the Portuguese
  •  (Eng.) Mill (AD 1806 - AD 1873): On Liberty, A System of Logic, Representative Government, Utilitarianism, The Subjection of Women, Autobiography
  •  (Eng.) Longfellow (AD 1807 - AD 1882): Paul Revere's Ride, The Song of Hiawatha, Evangeline, The Skeleton in Armor, The Courtship of Miles Standish, The Village Blacksmith, Excelsior, The Wreck of the Hesperus
  •  (Eng.) Poe (AD 1809 - AD 1849): Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesgue
  •  (Rus.) Gogol (AD 1809 - AD 1852): Taras Bul'ba, Dead Souls, The Government Inspector, Diary of a Madman, The Nose, The Overcoat, Collected Tales
  •  (Fr.) Proudhon (AD 1809 - AD 1865): What is Property?, The Philosophy of Poverty
  •  (Eng.) Darwin (AD 1809 - AD 1882): Origin of Species, Descent of Man, Autobiography, The Voyage of the Beagle
  •  (Eng.) Tennyson (AD 1809 - AD 1892): "Ulysses", In Memoriam, Idylls of the King
  •  (Eng.) Gaskell (AD 1810 - AD 1865): Cranford, My Lady Ludlow, Mr. Harrison's Confessions, North and South, Wives and Daughters, Mary Barton
  •  (Eng.) Thackeray (AD 1811 - AD 1863): Vanity Fair
  •  (Eng.) Stowe (AD 1811 - AD 1896): Uncle Tom's Cabin
  •  (Eng.) Dickens (AD 1812 - AD 1870): Complete Works
  •  (Eng.) Robert Browning (AD 1812 - AD 1889): My Last Duchess
  •  (Rus.) Goncharov (AD 1812 - AD 1891): Oblomov
  •  (Dan.) Kierkegaard (AD 1813 - AD 1855): Fear and Trembling, The Sickness Unto Death, The Book on Adler, Concluding Unscientific Postscript to Philosophical Fragments
  •  (Rus.) Lermontov (AD 1814 - AD 1841): A Hero of Our Time
  •  (Eng.) Trollope (AD 1815 - AD 1882): Barsetshire and Palliser Novels
  •  (Eng.) Bronte (AD 1816 - AD 1855): Jane Eyre, Villette, Shirley, The Professor
  •  (Eng.) Thoreau (AD 1817 - AD 1862): Walden, Civil Disobedience
  •  (Eng.) Bronte (AD 1818 - AD 1848): Wuthering Heights
  •  (Ger.) Marx (AD 1818 - AD 1883): The Communist Manifesto, Das Kapital, The German Ideology, The Poverty of Philosophy
  •  (Rus.) Turgenev (AD 1818 - AD 1883): Fathers and Sons, A Sportsman's Notebook, First Love and Other Stories
  •  (Eng.) Douglass (AD 1818 - AD 1895): Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass
  •  (Eng.) Eliot (AD 1819 - AD 1880): Adam Bede, Mill on the Floss, Silas Marner, Middlemarch, Daniel Deronda
  •  (Eng.) Lowell (AD 1819 - AD 1891): A Fable for Critics, The Biglow Papers
  •  (Eng.) Melville (AD 1819 - AD 1891): Moby Dick, Billy Budd, Typee
  •  (Eng.) Whitman (AD 1819 - AD 1892): Leaves of Grass
  •  (Eng.) Ruskin (AD 1819 - AD 1900): The Stones of Venice, Praeterita
  •  (Eng.) Sewell (AD 1820 - AD 1878): Black Beauty
  •  (Fr.) Flaubert (AD 1821 - AD 1880): Madame Bovary, Three Stories
  •  (Rus.) Dostoyevsky (AD 1821 - AD 1881): Crime and Punishment, The Brothers Karamazov, The Idiot, Notes from Underground, Demons, The Adolescent, The Double, The Gambler
  •  (Eng.) Arnold (AD 1822 - AD 1888): "Dover Beach"
  •  (Eng.) Collins (AD 1824 - AD 1889): The Woman in White, The Moonstone, Armadale, No Name
  •  (Eng.) MacDonald (AD 1824 - AD 1905): Phantastes, The Princess and the Goblin, At the Back of the North Wind, Lilith, Sir Gibbie
  •  (Eng.) Blackmore (AD 1825 - AD 1900): Lorna Doone
  •  (Ger.) Spyri (AD 1827 - AD 1901): Heidi
  •  (Eng.) Wallace (AD 1827 - AD 1905): Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ
  •  (Eng.) Verne (AD 1828 - AD 1905): Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea, A Journey to the Center of the Earth, Around the World in Eighty Days
  •  (Nor.) Ibsen (AD 1828 - AD 1906): Hedda Gabler, A Doll's House, The Wild Duck, Peer Gynt
  •  (Rus.) Tolstoy (AD 1828 - AD 1910): War and Peace, Anna Karenina. What is Art?, Twenty-three Tales, The Death of Ivan Ilyich, Childhood, Boyhood, and Youth, The Cossacks
  •  (Eng.) Dickenson (AD 1830 - AD 1886): Complete Poems
  •  (Eng.) Dodge (AD 1831 - AD 1905): Hans Brinker
  •  (Eng.) Alcott (AD 1832 - AD 1888): Little Women, An Old-Fashioned Girl
  •  (Eng.) Carroll (AD 1832 - AD 1898): Alice in Wonderland, Through the Looking-Glass, The Hunting of the Snark, Jabberwocky
  •  (Eng.) Henty (AD 1832 - AD 1902): Various Novels
  •  (Eng.) Butler (AD 1835 - AD 1902): The Way of All Flesh, Erewhon
  •  (Eng.) Twain (AD 1835 - AD 1910): The Prince and the Pauper, A Connecticut Yankee at King Arthur's Court, Huckleberry Finn, Tom Sawyer, The Mysterious Stranger
  •  (Dut.) Kuyper (AD 1837 - AD 1920): Calvinisme
  •  (Eng.) Pierce (AD 1839 - AD 1914): Various Papers
  •  (Fr.) Zola (AD 1840 - AD 1902): Germinal, Lourdes, Rome, Paris
  •  (Eng.) Dobson, Henry Austin (AD 1840 - AD 1921): Various
  •  (Ger.) Mengor (AD 1840 - AD 1921): Principles of Economics
  •  (Eng.) Hardy (AD 1840 - AD 1928): Jude the Obscure, Return of the Native, Far from the Madding Crowd, Tess of the d'Urbervilles, "Channel Firing", The Mayor of Casterbridge, The Woodlanders
  •  (Eng.) William James (AD 1842 - AD 1910): The Principles of Psychology, The Varieties of Religious Experience, Pragmatism, Essays in Radical Empiricism
  •  (Eng.) Henry James (AD 1843 - AD 1916): The Portrait of a Lady, The American, The Ambassadors, The Golden Bowl, The Princess Casamassima, The Bostonians, The Awkward Age, The Wings of the Dove, Collected Stories
  •  (Eng.) Hopkins (AD 1844 - AD 1889): "Pied Beauty"
  •  (Ger.) Nietzsche (AD 1844 - AD 1900): Thus Spake Zarathustra, Beyond Good and Evil, The Geneology of Morals, The Will to Power
  •  (Pol.) Sienkiewicz (AD 1846 - AD 1916): The Teutonic Knights, With Fire and Sword, The Deluge, Fire in the Steppe, Quo Vadis
  •  (Eng.) Stoker (AD 1847 - AD 1912): Dracula
  •  (Fr.) Sorel (AD 1847 - AD 1922): Reflections on Violence
  •  (Ger.) Frege (AD 1848 - AD 1925): Begriffsschrift
  •  (Eng.) Burnett (AD 1849 - AD 1924): The Secret Garden, A Little Princess, Little Lord Fauntleroy, The Lost Prince
  •  (Fr.) de Maupassant (AD 1850 - AD 1893): Bel Ami, La Parure
  •  (Eng.) Stevenson (AD 1850 - AD 1894): Treasure Island, Kidnapped, Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, Virginibus Puerisque, A Child's Garden of Verses, The Master of Ballantrae, The Weir of Hermiston
  •  (Eng.) Chopin (AD 1851 - AD 1904): The Awakening
  •  (Ger.) von Böhm-Bawerk (AD 1851 - AD 1914): Capital and Interest
  •  (Eng.) Pyle (AD 1853 - AD 1911): Robin Hood
  •  (Eng.) Wilde (AD 1854 - AD 1900): The Picture of Dorian Gray, The Importance of Being Earnest
  •  (Eng.) Booker T. Washington (AD 1856 - AD 1915): Up From Slavery
  •  (Eng.) Baum (AD 1856 - AD 1919): The Wonderful Wizard of Oz
  •  (Eng.) Haggard (AD 1856 - AD 1925): King Solomon's Mines
  •  (Ger.) Freud (AD 1856 - AD 1939): General Introduction to Psychoanalysis, The Interpretation of Dreams, Civilization and Its Discontents, The Future of an Illusion
  •  (Eng.) Shaw (AD 1856 - AD 1950): Pygmalion, Man and Superman, Major Barbara, Caesar and Cleopatra, Saint Joan
  •  (Eng.) Conrad (AD 1857 - AD 1924): Heart of Darkness, Lord Jim, Typhoon and Other Stories, Under Western Eyes, Nostromo, The Secret Agent, Victory
  •  (Eng.) Doyle (AD 1859 - AD 1930): Sherlock Homes, The Lost World
  •  (Eng.) Grahame (AD 1859 - AD 1932): The Wind in the Willows
  •  (Eng.) Housman (AD 1859 - AD 1936): A Shropshire Lad
  •  (Ger.) Husserl (AD 1859 - AD 1938): Logical Investigations, Experience and Judgment, others
  •  (Fr.) Bergson (AD 1859 - AD 1941): Time and Free Will, Matter and Memory, Creative Evolution, The Two Sources of Morality and Religion
  •  (Eng.) Dewey (AD 1859 - AD 1952): How We Think, Democracy and Education, Experience and Nature, Logic, the Theory of Inquiry
  •  (Rus.) Chekhov (AD 1860 - AD 1904): The Stories of Anton Chekhov
  •  (Eng.) Barrie (AD 1860 - AD 1937): Peter Pan
  •  (It.) Svevo (AD 1861 - AD 1928): Zeno's Conscience
  •  (Eng.) Whitehead (AD 1861 - AD 1947): Principia Mathematica
  •  (Eng.) O. Henry (AD 1862 - AD 1910): Short Stories
  •  (Eng.) Wharton (AD 1862 - AD 1937): The Age of Innocence, The House of Mirth, The Custom of the Country, The Reef, Ethan Frome, Summer, Bunner Sisters
  •  (Eng.) Stratton-Porter (AD 1863 - AD 1924): Freckles, A Girl of the Limberlost
  •  (Eng.) Quiller-Couch (AD 1863 - AD 1944): Oxford Book of English Verse, The Pilgrim's Way, Oxford Book of English Prose
  •  (Eng.) Santayana (AD 1863 - AD 1952): The Life of Reason, Skepticism and Animal Faith, Persons and Places
  •  (Ger.) Weber (AD 1864 - AD 1920): Die Protestantische Ethik und der Geist des Kapitalismus, Politik als Beruf, Economy and Society
  •  (Eng.) Kipling (AD 1865 - AD 1936): The Jungle Book, Just So Stories, The Man Who Would Be King, Kim
  •  (Eng.) Yeats (AD 1865 - AD 1939): "Among School Children", "The Second Coming"
  •  (Eng.) Orczy (AD 1865 - AD 1947): The Scarlet Pimpernel Novels
  •  (Eng.) Potter (AD 1866 - AD 1943): Complete Works
  •  (Eng.) Wells (AD 1866 - AD 1946): The Time Machine, The Invisible Man, The War of the Worlds, The New Accelerator
  •  (It.) Pirandello (AD 1867 - AD 1936): Sei Personaggi in Cerca d'Autore
  •  (Eng.) Wilder (AD 1867 - AD 1957): Little House
  •  (Fr.) Rostand (AD 1868 - AD 1918): Cyrano de Bergerac
  •  (Fr.) Leroux (AD 1868 - AD 1927): Le Fantome de l'Opera
  •  (Eng.) Du Bois (AD 1868 - AD 1963): The Souls of Black Folk
  •  (Rus.) Lenin (AD 1870 - AD 1924): The State and Revolution, April Theses
  •  (Eng.) French (AD 1870 - AD 1946): The Story of Rolf and the Viking Bow
  •  (Eng.) Belloc (AD 1870 - AD 1953): Essays, The Servile State
  •  (Eng.) Crane (AD 1871 - AD 1900): The Red Badge of Courage
  •  (Fr.) Proust (AD 1871 - AD 1922): Remembrance of Things Past
  •  (Eng.) Russell (AD 1872 - AD 1970): The Problems of Philosophy, The Analysis of Mind, An Inquiry into Meaning and Truth, Human Knowledge: Its Scope and Limits
  •  (Eng.) Ford (AD 1873 - AD 1939): The Good Soldier, Parade's End
  •  (Eng.) Cather (AD 1873 - AD 1947): Death Comes for the Archbishop, My Antonia, O Pioneers!
  •  (Eng.) Chesterton (AD 1874 - AD 1936): Orthodoxy, The Everlasting Man, Father Brown, The Man Who Knew Too Much
  •  (Eng.) Montgomery (AD 1874 - AD 1942): Anne Series
  •  (Eng.) Frost (AD 1874 - AD 1963): "Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening", "The Road Not Taken"
  •  (Eng.) Burgess (AD 1874 - AD 1965): Various
  •  (Eng.) Churchill (AD 1874 - AD 1965): The Second World War, History of the English-Speaking Peoples
  •  (Eng.) Maugham (AD 1874 - AD 1965): Of Human Bondage, Collected Stories, The Skeptical Romancer
  •  (Eng.) Buchan (AD 1875 - AD 1940): The Thirty-Nine Steps, Greenmantle, Mr. Standfast, The Three Hostages, The Island of Sheep, Witch Wood
  •  (Eng.) Sabatini (AD 1875 - AD  1950): Scaramouche, Captain Blood
  •  (Ger.) Thomas Mann (AD 1875 - AD 1955): Der Zauberberg, Joseph und seine Brüder, Buddenbrooks, Der Tod in Venedig, Doktor Faustus, Sämtliche Erzählungen
  •  (Ger.) Jung (AD 1875 - AD 1961): Psychology of the Unconcious, Psychological Types
  •  (Eng.) London (AD 1876 - AD 1916): White Fang, Call of the Wild, To Build a Fire
  •  (Eng.) Webster (AD 1876 - AD 1916): Daddy-Long-Legs, Dear Enemy
  •  (Ger.) Hesse (AD 1877 - AD 1962): Der Steppenwolf, Siddhartha, Das Glasperlenspiel
  •  (Eng.) Sandburg (AD 1878 - AD 1967): The Complete Poems of Carl Sandburg, Corn Huskers, Abraham Lincoln: The War Years
  •  (Eng.) Sinclair (AD 1878 - AD 1968): The Jungle
  •  (Eng.) Sanger (AD 1879 - AD 1966): The Pivot of Civilization
  •  (Eng.) E. M. Forster (AD 1879 - AD 1970): Howards End, A Passage to India, A Room with a View, Where Angels Fear to Tread
  •  (Eng.) Mencken (AD 1880 - AD 1956): The Philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche, The American Language, Treatise on the Gods
  •  (Eng.) von Mises (AD 1881 - AD 1973): Human Action
  •  (Eng.) Wodehouse (AD 1881 - AD 1975): Jeeves, Blandings Castle, Mulliner, Psmith
  •  (Eng.) Joyce (AD 1882 - AD 1941): Ulysses, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, Finnegans Wake, Dubliners
  •  (Eng.) Woolf (AD 1882 - AD 1941): The Common Reader, Mrs. Dalloway, To the Lighthouse, Orlando, A Room of One's Own
  •  (Eng.) Milne (AD 1882 - AD 1956): Winnie-the-Pooh
  •  (Fr.) Maritain (AD 1882 - AD 1973): Art et Scolastique, Les Degres du Savoir, Les Droits De L'homme Et La Loi Naturelle, Humanisme intégral
  •  (Cz.) Hasek (AD 1883 - AD 1923): The Good Soldier Svejk
  •  (Ger.) Kafka (AD 1883 - AD 1924): Der Prozess, The Castle, The Metamorphosis
  •  (Eng.) Gibran (AD 1883 - AD 1931): Collected Works
  •  (Eng.) Keynes (AD 1883 - AD 1946): The General Theory
  •  (Eng.) Schumpeter (AD 1883 - AD 1950): History of Economic Analysis, Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy
  •  (Eng.) McCulley (AD 1883 - AD 1958): The Curse of Capistrano (The Mark of Zorro)
  •  (Eng.) Ransome (AD 1884 - AD 1967): Swallows and Amazons series
  •  (Eng.) Lawrence (AD 1885 - AD 1930): Lady Chatterly's Lover, Sons and Lovers, Women in Love, The Rainbow, Stories
  •  (Eng.) Lewis (AD 1885 - AD 1951): Main Street, Arrowsmith, Elmer Gantry, Babbitt
  •  (Eng.) Pound (AD 1885 - AD 1972): "The River Merchant's Wife: A Letter", Ripostes, Hugh Selwyn Mauberly, The Cantos
  •  (Eng.) Durant (AD 1885 - AD 1981): The Story of Civilization, The Story of Philosophy
  •  (Eng.) Williams (AD 1886 - AD 1945): Descent into Hell
  •  (Eng.) Mansfield (AD 1888 - AD 1923): The Garden Party and Other Stories
  •  (Eng.) Chandler (AD 1888 - AD 1959): The Lady in the Lake, The Little Sister, The Long Goodbye, Playback, Collected Stories
  •  (Eng.) Eliot (AD 1888 - AD 1965): "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock", The Waste Land
  •  (Ger.) Hitler (AD 1889 - AD 1945): Mein Kampf
  •  (Ger.) Wittgenstein (AD 1889 - AD 1951): Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, Philosophische Untersuchungen
  •  (Eng.) Toynbee (AD 1889 - AD 1975): A Study of History, Civilization on Trial
  •  (Ger.) Heidegger (AD 1889 - AD 1976): Sein Und Zeit, Einführung in die Metaphysik, Was ist das - die Philosophie?
  •  (Eng.) Delafield (AD 1890 - AD 1943): Diary of a Provincial Lady
  •  (Rus.) Pasternak (AD 1890 - AD 1960): Doctor Zhivago
  •  (Eng.) Christie (AD 1890 - AD 1976): Various Novels, including The Murder of Roger Ackroyd
  •  (Rus.) Bulgakov (AD 1891 - AD 1940): The Master and Margarita
  •  (Eng.) Forbes (AD 1891 - AD 1967): Johnny Tremain
  •  (Ger., Eng.) Carnap (AD 1891 - AD 1970): Der logische Aufbau der Welt, Scheinprobleme in der Philosophie
  •  (Eng.) Buck (AD 1892 - AD 1973): The Good Earth
  •  (Eng.) Tolkein (AD 1892 - AD 1973): The Silmarillion, The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, The History of Middle Earth, The Legend of Sigurd and Gudrun
  •  (Eng.) Cain (AD 1892 - AD 1977): The Postman Always Rings Twice, Double Indemnity, Mildred Pierce, Selected Stories
  •  (Eng.) Ten Boom (AD 1892 - AD 1983): The Hiding Place
  •  (Eng.) Owen (AD 1893 - AD 1918): "Dulce et Decorum Est"
  •  (Eng.) Sayers (AD 1893 - AD 1957): Lord Peter Wimsey Novels
  •  (Ch.) Tse-Tung (AD 1893 - AD 1976): Quotations From Chairman Mao Tse-Tung
  •  (Ger.) Roth (AD 1894 - AD 1939): Radetzkymarsch, Hiob, Juden auf Wanderschaft
  •  (Eng.) Kinsey (AD 1894 - AD 1956): Sexual Behavior in the Human Male, Sexual Behavior in the Human Female
  •  (Eng.) Hammett (AD 1894 - AD 1961): The Maltese Falcon, The Thin Man, Red Harvest, The Dain Curse, The Glass Key, Selected Stories
  •  (Eng.) Huxley (AD 1894 - AD 1963): Brave New World
  •  (Dut.) Dooyeweerd (AD 1894 - AD 1977): A New Critique of Theoretical Thought
  •  (Eng.) Fitzgerald (AD 1896 - AD 1940): Great Gatsby, This Side of Paradise
  •  (It.) Lampedusa (AD 1896 - AD 1957): Il Gattopardo
  •  (Eng.) Faulkner (AD 1897 - AD 1962): The Sound and the Fury, Absalom, Absalom, A Fable, The Reivers, As I Lay Dying
  •  (Ger.) Brecht (AD 1898 - AD 1956): Die Dreigroschenoper, Leben des Galilei
  •  (Eng.) Lewis (AD 1898 - AD 1963): Allegory of Love, Problem of Pain, Preface to Paradise Lost, Abolition of Man, Miracles, Mere Christianity, Surprised by Joy, Four Loves, Experiment in Criticism, Grief Observed, Discarded Image, God in the Dock, Weight of Glory, Pilgrim's Regress, Space Trilogy, Screwtape, Great Divorce, Narnia, Till We Have Faces, Boxen
  •  (Ger.) Remarque (AD 1898 - AD 1970): Im Westen nichts Neues
  •  (Eng.) d'Aulaire (AD 1898 - AD 1986): Myths
  •  (Eng.) O'Dell (AD 1898 - AD 1989): Island of the Blue Dolphins
  •  (Eng.) Barfield (AD 1898 - AD 1997): Saving the Appearances
  •  (Eng.) Hemingway (AD 1899 - AD 1961): The Old Man and the Sea, The Sun Also Rises, For Whom the Bell Tolls, A Farewell to Arms
  •  (Eng.) Forester (AD 1899 - AD 1966): Hornblower series
  •  (Eng.) Nabokov (AD 1899 - AD 1977): Lolita, Pale Fire, Speak, Memory, Pnin
  •  (Eng.) White (AD 1899 - AD 1985): Charlotte's Web, Stuart Little
  •  (Sp.) Borges (AD 1899 - AD 1986): Ficciones, The Aleph, Labyrinths
  •  (Eng.) Hayek (AD 1899 - AD 1992): The Road to Serfdom
  •  (Fr.) Saint-Exupery (AD 1900 - AD 1944): The Little Prince
  •  (Eng.) Mitchell (AD 1900 - AD 1949): Gone with the Wind
  •  (Eng.) Caldwell (AD 1900 - AD 1985): Captains and the Kings, Answer as a Man, A Pillar of Iron, On Growing Up Tough
  •  (Eng.) Chambers (AD 1901 - AD 1961): Witness
  •  (Eng.) Mead (AD 1901 - AD 1978): Coming of Age in Samoa
  •  (Eng.) Voegelin (AD 1901 - AD 1985): The New Science of Politics
  •  (Eng.) Steinbeck (AD 1902 - AD 1968): Grapes of Wrath, Of Mice and Men, East of Eden
  •  (Eng.) Bailey (AD 1902 - AD 1983): The American Pageant
  •  (Eng.) Stead (AD 1902 - AD 1983): The Man Who Loved Children
  •  (Eng.) Gibbons (AD 1902 - AD 1989): Cold Comfort Farm
  •  (Eng.) Popper (AD 1902 - AD 1994): The Logic of Scientific Discovery, Conjectures and Refutations, Of Clocks and Clouds
  •  (Eng.) Latham (AD 1902 - AD 1995): Carry On, Mr. Bowditch
  •  (Eng.) Henry (AD 1902 - AD 1997): Misty of Chincoteague
  •  (Fr.) Nemirovsky (AD 1903 - AD 1942): Suite Francaise, David Golder, Le Bal, Les Mouches d'automne, L'Affaire Courilof
  •  (Eng.) Orwell (AD 1903 - AD 1950): 1984, Animal Farm, Essays, Burmese Days, Keep the Aspidistra Flying, Coming Up for Air
  •  (Eng.) O'Conner (AD 1903 - AD 1966): Various Works
  •  (Eng.) Waugh (AD 1903 - AD 1966): Brideshead Revisited, Decline and Fall, Sword of Honor trilogy, Short Stories, A Handful of Dust, Black Mischief, Scoop, The Loved One, The Ordeal of Gilbert Pinfold, Waugh Abroad, The Collected Travel Writing, Vile Bodies, Put Out More Flags
  •  (Eng.) Keith (AD 1903 - AD 1998): Rifles for Watie
  •  (Eng.) Greene (AD 1904 - AD 1991): Brighton Rock, The Power and the Glory, The Heart of the Matter, The End of the Affair, The Confidential Agent, The Third Man, The Quiet American, Our Man in Havana, The Human Factor
  •  (Fr.) Sartre (AD 1905 - AD 1980): La nausée, Huis clos, L'étre et le néant, L'âge de raison, L'existentialisme est un humanisme
  •  (Eng.) Rand (AD 1905 - AD 1982): The Fountainhead, Atlas Shrugged
  •  (Eng.) Warren (AD 1905 - AD 1989): All the King's Men
  •  (Eng.) White (AD 1906 - AD 1964): The Once and Future King
  •  (Eng.) Llewellyn (AD 1906 - AD 1983): How Green Was My Valley
  •  (Eng.) Beckett (AD 1906 - AD 1989): Molloy, Malone Dies, The Unnameable
  •  (Eng.) Narayan (AD 1906 - AD 2001): Swami and Friends, The Bachelor of Arts, The Dark Room, The English Teacher, Mr. Sampath, The Printer of Malgudi, The Financial Expert, Waiting for the Mahatma
  •  (Eng.) Carson (AD 1907 - AD 1964): Silent Spring
  •  (Eng.) Auden (AD 1907 - AD 1973): "Musee des Beaux Arts"
  •  (Eng.) Michener (AD 1907 - AD 1997): Tales of the South Pacific, Texas
  •  (Eng.) Hunt (AD 1907 - AD 2001): Across Five Aprils
  •  (Eng.) Gipson (AD 1908 - AD 1973): Old Yeller
  •  (Fr.) Beauvior (AD 1908 - AD 1986): Le deuxième sexe
  •  (Eng.) Speare (AD 1908 - AD 1994): The Witch of Blackbird Pond
  •  (Eng.) Quine (AD 1908 - AD 2000): Two Dogmas of Empiricism, Word and Object
  •  (Eng.) Galbraith (AD 1908 - AD 2006): American Capitalism, The Affluent Society, The New Industrial State
  •  (Eng.) Weaver (AD 1910 - AD 1963): Ideas Have Consequences
  •  (Eng.) O'Nolan (AD 1911 - AD 1966): Complete Novels
  •  (Eng.) Williams (AD 1911 - AD 1983): A Streetcar Named Desire, Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, Glass Menagerie
  •  (Eng.) Golding (AD 1911 - AD 1993): Lord of the Flies, To the Ends of the Earth
  •  (Egyp.) Mahfouz (AD 1911 - AD 2006): The Cairo Trilogy
  •  (Eng.) Tuchman (AD 1912 - AD 1989): The Guns of August, Stillwell and the American Experience in China, Bible and Sword, The First Salute
  •  (Fr.) Ellul (AD 1912 - AD 1994): La Parole humiliée, Anarchie et Christianisme, La technique ou l'enjeu du siècle
  •  (Eng.) Friedman (AD 1912 - AD 2006): Capitalism and Freedom
  •  (Fr.) Camus (AD 1913 - AD 1960): L'Étranger, Le Mythe de Sisyphe, La Peste, La Chute, L'exil et le royaume, Selected Essays
  •  (Eng.) Rawls (AD 1913 - AD 1984): Where the Red Fern Grows
  •  (Eng.) Dylan Thomas (AD 1914 - AD 1953): "Fern Hill", "Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night", "A Child's Christmas in Wales"
  •  (Eng.) O'Brian (AD 1914 - AD 2000): Aubrey-Maturin series
  •  (Eng.) Boorstin (AD 1914 - AD 2004): The Discoverers, The Creators, The Seekers
  •  (Eng.) Farley (AD 1915 - AD 1989): The Black Stallion
  •  (Eng.) Saul Bellow (AD 1915 - AD 2005): The Adventures of Augie March, Herzog, Mr. Sammler's Planet, Seize the Day, Humboldt's Gift, Ravelstein
  •  (Eng.) Miller (AD 1915 - AD 2005): Death of a Salesman, Crucible
  •  (Eng.) Wouk (AD 1915 - ): The Caine Mutiny, War and Remembrance
  •  (Eng.) Dahl (AD 1916 - AD 1990): Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, Collected Stories
  •  (Eng.) Percy (AD 1916 - AD 1990): Love in the Ruins, The Thanatos Syndrome, The Moviegoer
  •  (It.) Bassani (AD 1916 - AD 2000): Il giardino dei Finzi-Contini
  •  (Eng.) Fitzgerald (AD 1916 - AD 2000): The Bookshop, The Gate of Angels, The Blue Flower, Offshore, Human Voices, The Beginning of Spring
  •  (Eng.) Foote (AD 1916 - AD 2005): The Civil War
  •  (Eng.) Cleary (AD 1916 - ): Dear Mr. Henshaw, Ramona Quimby, Age 8
  •  (Eng.) Burgess (AD 1917 - AD 1993): A Clockwork Orange
  •  (Sp.) Gironella (AD 1917 - AD 2003): The Cypresses Believe in God
  •  (Eng.) Green (AD 1918 - 1987): Robin Hood, Myths of the Norsemen, The Saga of Asgard
  •  (Eng.) Kirk (AD 1918 - AD 1994): The Conservative Mind
  •  (Eng.) Spark (AD 1918 - AD 2006): The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie, The Girls of Slender Means, The Driver's Seat, The Only Problem
  •  (Eng.) L'Engle (AD 1918 - AD 2007): A Wrinkle in Time, A Wind in the Door, A Swiftly Tilting Planet, Many Waters, An Acceptable Time
  •  Solzhenitsyn (AD 1918 - AD 2008): (Rus. then Fr.) The Gulag Archipelago, (Rus.) One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich, (Rus.) The First Circle, (Rus.) Cancer Ward
  •  (It.) Levi (AD 1919 - AD 1987): Se questo è un uomo, Il sistema periodico, La tregua
  •  (Eng.) Salinger (AD 1919 - AD 2010): Catcher in the Rye
  •  (Eng.) Lessing (AD 1919 - ): Stories, The Grass is Singing, The Golden Notebook, Canopus in Argos
  •  (Eng.) Scott (AD 1920 - AD 1978): Raj Quartet
  •  (Eng.) Herbert (AD 1920 - AD 1986): Dune
  •  (Eng.) Asimov (AD 1920 - AD 1992): Foundation, Robot
  •  (Eng.) Adams (AD 1920 - ): Watership Down
  •  (Eng.) Bradbury (AD 1920 - ): Fahrenheit 451, The Stories
  •  (It.) Sciascia (AD 1921 - AD 1989): Il mare color del vino (hard to find), Il giorno della civetta
  •  (Eng.) Highsmith (AD 1921 - AD 1995): The Talented Mr. Ripley, Ripley Under Ground, Ripley's Game, The Boy Who Followed Ripley, Ripley Under Water
  •  (Eng.) Friedan (AD 1921 - AD 2006): The Feminine Mystique
  •  (Dut.) Rookmaaker (AD 1922 - AD 1977): Modern Art and The Death of a Culture
  •  (Eng.) Kuhn (AD 1922 - AD 1996): The Structure of Scientific Revolutions
  •  (Eng.) Vonnegut (AD 1922 - AD 2007): Slaughterhouse-Five
  •  (It.) Calvino (AD 1923 - AD 1985): I nostri antenati, Cosmicomics stories, Le città invisibili, Se una notte d'inverno un viaggiatore
  •  (Eng.) Heller (AD 1923 - AD 1999): Catch-22
  •  (Eng.) Fox (AD 1923 - ): The One-Eyed Cat
  •  (Eng.) Feyerabend (AD 1924 - AD 1994): Against Method
  •  (Eng.) O'Conner (AD 1925 - AD 1964): Everything That Rises Must Converge, The Violent Bear It Away, Wise Blood
  •  (Eng.) Fraser (AD 1925 - AD 2008): Flashman, Candlemass Road
  •  (Fr.) Foucault (AD 1926 - AD 1984): Folie et déraison, Les Mots et les choses, L'Archéologie du Savoir
  •  (Eng.) Yates (AD 1926 - AD 1992): Revolutionary Road, The Easter Parade, Eleven Kinds of Loneliness
  •  (Eng.) Rothbard (AD 1926 - AD 1995): Man, Economy, and State
  •  (Eng.) Lee (AD 1926 - ): To Kill a Mockingbird
  •  (Eng.) Morris (AD 1926 - ): Pax Britannica
  •  (Eng.) Bork (AD 1927 - ): The Tempting of America, Slouching Towards Gomorrah
  •  (Ger.) Grass (AD 1927 - ): Die Blechtrommel
  •  (Sp.) Marquez (AD 1927 - ): One Hundred Years of Solitude, Love in the Time of Cholera, The General in His Labyrinth
  •  (Eng.) Albee (AD 1928 - ): Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
  •  (Eng.) Johnson (AD 1928 - ): Modern Times, A History of the American People
  •  (Dut.) Anne Frank (AD 1929 - AD 1945): The Diary of Anne Frank
  •  (Eng.) King, Jr. (AD 1929 - AD 1968): I Have a Dream, Letter from Birmingham Jail
  •  (Eng.) Potok (AD 1929 - AD 2002): The Chosen
  •  (Eng.) Juster (AD 1929 - ): The Phantom Tollbooth
  •  (Eng.) Allen Bloom (AD 1930 - AD 1992): The Closing of the American Mind
  •  (Fr.) Derrida (AD 1930 - AD 2004): De la grammatologie
  •  (Eng.) Achebe (AD 1930 - ): The African Trilogy
  •  (Eng.) Morrison (AD 1931 - ): The Song of Solomon, Beloved
  •  (Eng.) Munro (AD 1931 - ): Carried Away
  •  (Eng.) Plath (AD 1932 - AD 1963): The Bell Jar, Complete Poems
  •  (Eng.) Updike (AD 1932 - AD 2009): Rabbit Series (4 novels and 1 novella), Henry Bech series, The Witches of Eastwick
  •  (It.) Eco (AD 1932 - ): Il nome della rosa
  •  (Eng.) Ehrlich (AD 1932 - ): The Population Bomb
  •  (Eng.) Naipaul (AD 1932 - ): A House for Mr. Biswas, In a Free State
  •  (Eng.) Plantinga (AD 1932 - ): God and Other Minds, The Nature of Necessity, Warranted Christian Belief
  •  (Eng.) McCarthy (AD 1933 - ): The Road, The Border Trilogy
  •  (Eng.) McCullough (AD 1933 - ): Truman, John Adams, 1776, The Path Between the Seas
  •  (Eng.) Kesey (AD 1935 - AD 2001): One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest
  •  (Eng.) Ambrose (AD 1936 - AD 2002): Citizen Soldiers, Undaunted Courage, Band of Brothers
  •  (Eng.) McMurtry (AD 1936 - ): Lonesome Dove
  •  (Eng.) MacLachlan (AD 1938 - ): Sarah, Plain and Tall
  •  (Eng.) Atwood (AD 1939 - ): The Handmaid's Tale, The Blind Assassin
  •  (Eng.) Herr (AD 1940 - ): Dispatches
  •  (Eng.) Johnson (AD 1940 - ): Darwin on Trial
  •  (Eng.) Kripke (AD 1940 - ): Naming and Necessity
  •  (Eng.) Dawkins (AD 1941 - ): The God Delusion
  •  (Sp.) Allende (AD 1942 - ): The House of the Spirits
  •  (Eng.) Berlinski (AD 1942 - ): The Devil's Delusion: Atheism and Its Scientific Pretensions
  •  (Eng.) Ondaatje (AD 1943 - ): The English Patient
  •  (Eng.) Ford, Richard (AD 1944 - ): The Bascombe Novels
  •  (Eng.) Wangerin (AD 1944 - ): The Book of the Dun Cow
  •  (Eng.) Dillard (AD 1945 - ): Pilgrim at Tinker Creek, Holy the Firm, For the Time Being, An American Childhood, The Maytrees
  •  (Eng.) Hofstadter (AD 1945 - ): Gödel, Escher, Bach: an Eternal Golden Braid
  •  (Port.) Coelho (AD 1947 - ): The Alchemist
  •  (Eng.) Rushdie (AD 1947 - ): Midnight's Children
  •  (Eng.) Hitchens (AD 1949 - ): God is Not Great
  •  (Eng.) Card (AD 1951 - ): Ender's Game, Speaker for the Dead
  •  (Turk.) Pamuk (AD 1952 - ): My Name is Red, Snow
  •  (Eng.) Pearcey (AD 1952 - ): Total Truth
  •  (Eng.) Wilson (AD 1953 - ): Letter from a Christian Citizen, Collision
  •  (Eng.) Ishiguro (AD 1954 - ): The Remains of the Day
  •  (Eng.) Fielding (AD 1958 - ): Bridget Jones's Diary
  •  (Eng.) Dembski (AD 1960 - ): The Design Inference, Intelligent Design
  •  (Eng.) Martel (AD 1963 - ): Life of Pi
  •  (Eng.) Rowling (AD 1965 - ): Harry Potter
  •  (Eng.) Harris (AD 1967 - ): Letter to a Christian Nation

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